The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 and the Programme of Action (1992) gives the basic policy framework for education, emphasizing on correcting the existing inequalities. It stresses on reducing dropout rates, improving learning achievements and expanding access to students who have not had an easy opportunity to be a part of the general system. The NPE, 1986 envisaged some measures for integrating of children with physical and mental handicap with the general community as equal partners, preparing them for their normal growth and development and enabling them to face life with courage and confidence.
The Centrally sponsored IEDSS scheme aims to:
1) Enable all students with disabilities completing 8 years of elementary schooling an opportunity to complete 4 years of secondary schooling (Classes IX – XII) in an inclusive and enabling environment.
2) Provide educational opportunities and facilities to students with disabilities in the general education system at the secondary level (Classes IX – XII)
3) Support the training of general school teachers to meet the needs of children with disabilities at the secondary level.
The objectives of the scheme is to ensure that:
1) Every child with disability will be identified at the secondary level and his educational needs assessed.
2) Every student in need of aids and appliances, assistive devices will be provided the same.
3) All architectural barriers in schools are removed so that students with disability have access to classrooms, laboratories, libraries and toilets in the schools.
4) Each student with disability will be supplied learning material as per his/her requirement.
5) All the general school teachers at the secondary level will be provided basic training to teach students with disabilities within the period of 3-5 years.
6) Students with disabilities will have access to support services like the appointment of special educators, establishment of resource rooms in every block.
7) Model schools are to be set up in every State to develop good replicable practices in inclusive education.
IEDC (Integrated Education for Disabled Children) CSS
1. Integrated for the Disabled Children (IEDC) was implemented in Mizoram in 1985 in the selected 20 schools with 40 Resource Teachers and 20 Resource Rooms, catering to disabled children in general schools.
2. Project Integrated Education for Disabled (PIED) UNICEF project PIED was introduced in 1989 in Mizoram to strengthen the implementation of IEDC, NCERT, Government of India and UNICEF launched an experimental Project called PIED. Composite area approach for comprehensive services is selected Blocks, i.e., Khawzawl Schools were covered. Since UNICEF Project was for a period of 5 years, the Scheme merged into its mother Scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) covering all the school of Mizoram since 1995-2008.
3. Sarva Shiksa Abhiyan (SSA) came into existence in 2002 in Mizoram, having Inclusive Education as one of its intervention components. The stage of implementation of Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) was subsumed under SSA since 2008.
IEDSS (Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage)
The Scheme of IEDSS was introduced by ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) since 2009. Mizoram also implemented this Scheme covering Secondary School, i.e. class IX – XII. The Scheme of Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) envisaged all children and young persons with disabilities to have access to Secondary Education and to improve their enrolment, retention and achievement in the general education system. At present, there are 915 disabled students out of which 20 blind (13 boys and 7 girls) and 55 low vision (37 boys and 18 girls) students enrolled in Secondary Stage.
Blind students are enrolled in Special Blind School, Durtlang and Moriah Blind School, Luangmual. Few others are staying at Integrated Blind Hostel, Holasib, attending local schools.
Low vision students, on the other hand, are attending various schools as per their conveniences.
- In 2002, 10 special teachers were engaged on Contract Basis.
- In 2008, another 10 new special teachers were engaged.
- In 2011, 25 new special teachers were engaged.
The IEDSS scheme provides for salary of special teachers at ratio of 1:5. Their qualifications are
(i) Graduates with B.Ed (Special Education) or B.Ed (general) with 2 years Diploma in Special Education for classes IX & X.
(II) Post Graduates in relevant subject with B.Ed (Special Education) or B.Ed (general) with a 2 years Diploma in Special Education for classes XI & XII.
As defined under the Persons with Disabilities Act (1995) and the National Trust Act (1999) disabled children to be covered are:
2. Low Vision
3. Leprosy Cured
4. Hearing Impaired
5. Locomotor Disabilities
6. Mental Retardation
7. Mental Illness
9. Cerebral Palsy
Speech Impairment and Learning disabilities may be covered eventually.
Regular Activities / Programmes
1. Identifications: All children with disabilities need to be identified so as to avail the services provided under the scheme.
Identification checklist prepared in Mizo language is distributed to all teachers.
2. Assessment: Children identified or suspected to have disabilities require medical intervention. Medical Assessment confirms the disability of a child. Medical specialists prescribes the right type of assistive devices.
3. Intervention: Children with disabilities are provided with aids and appliances free of cost, namely:
- Surgical shoes
- Artificial limbs
- Hearing aids
- Walking stick
- Blind stick
- Intervention by way of speech Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Physio Therapy as required is a regular feature.
- Parents counseling is done on a regular basis.
They are also provided (free of cost)
- Books & stationaries
- Uniform allowances
-Boarding & lodging allowances
-Scholarship for girl disabled students
The above provisions are financed by Govt. of India, so as to enable all children to get equal opportunities and to give them education which is their right. The school is also prepared for them to be accommodated in spite of their variety of problems.
All students with disabilities are brought to the schools, and they are placed in those schools most convenient to them. Preventing drop outs due to disability is a very important matter.
5. Training of Teachers: All teachers are given training in Special Education as follows:
(1) 3 days Orientation Training.
(2) 4 to 6 weeks Training in Multi-Category Training.
Apart from this SCERT has a Study Centre under Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI). This Centre runs the courses of Foundation in Special Education and B.Ed (Hearing)
6. Training of Parents and Community.
Parents of disabled are given 2 days training for awareness, and management of their disabled children.
Community Awareness Programmes are organized in as many villages, towns, localities as possible because in order to set the communities’ support, attitude change and awareness is very important.
7. Observation of World Disables Day, 3rd December every year.
(1) Medical assessment camps in all the eight (8) Districts of Mizoram.
(2) Basic Computer Training for Blind.
(3) Writers Workshops to develop parents handbook, Teachers Guide Book, Picture Dictionary.
(4) Construction of Resource Rooms in 66 schools.
(5) Community Contact Programmes.
(6) Teachers Training Programmes.
(7) Parents Training Programmes.
(8) Measurement and assessment camps for Locomotor Disabled.
(9) Construction of Special Toilets in schools.
(10) Construction of camps in schools.
(11) Printing of Large Print Text Books.
(12) Printing of Braille Text Books.
1. Teacher’s Guide Book – “Naupang Mamawh Bik Neite Kaihhruaina”
2. Parent’s Handbook on Management of disabled children.
3. A pawi hma-in a \ul ti rawh (booklet).
4. Picture Dictionary.
5. Vohbik (Magazine)
6. Vohbik hlabu
7. Large Print Tect Books
8. Braille Text Books
1. Pi Zohmingliani, Dy. Director i/c IEDC
2. Pi Zokungpuii, Special Education Officer
3. Pu Rorelkima Lecturer